Effective learning at University series
of viewing learners as passively recording the stimuli that the teacher
presents, learning is viewed as an active process that occurs within the
learner and which can be influenced by the learner.
Instead of viewing the outcome
of learning as depending mainly on what the teacher presents, the outcome
of learning is supposed to depend jointly on what information is presented
and how the learner processes that information.
Hence there are two different
kinds of activities that influence the encoding process
- teaching strategies, such
as the teacher presenting certain material at a certain time in a certain
- learning strategies, such
as the learner actively organising or elaborating or predicting about
the presented material."
Weinstein, C. F. & Mayer, R. F. (1986). The teaching of learning strategies.
In Wittrock, M. C. Handbook of research on teaching. 3rd Ed. p.316